Standards for microfilm
Those concerned with the planning and implementation of
microfilm systems may feel that national and international
standards are more relevant to suppliers of equipment and materials than
users. It is true that standards were once largely confined to sizes
and tolerances to ensure compatibility between products from different
suppliers, but recommendations and advisory standards, aimed at users, have
also been introduced to encourage them to adopt best practices, achieve
optimum quality and ensure maximum archival life.
BSI is the prime UK source of BS and ISO standards. G G
Baker & Associates were closely involved in the development and improvement
of British standards for micrographics and assisted with progress towards
international integration. The International Standards Organisation (ISO)
now lists many standards relating to micrographics and electronic records
management, most of which are based on previous BSI standards. All BS and
ISO standards are available from the British Standards Institution at
www.bsigroup.com. G G Baker &
Associates no longer stock them. BSI Non-member
prices are quoted in the following lists - there are discounts of up to 50%
for BSI members.
Gerald Baker was the Chairman of the BSI and ISO
micrographic committees for many years and he also Chaired the working group
responsible for COM. G G Baker & Associates used to organise seminars on
document management subjects and one of the questions most frequently asked
by delegates related to the legal status of microfilmed documents. At one of
these seminars, held at the Chartered Accountant's Hall in London in 1982,
Mrs H S Fletcher Rogers, who represented the Bar Association for Commerce,
Finance & Industry, presented a paper which had far-reaching consequences
because it sparked a demand for an advisory standard on the subject.
Gerald Baker wrote to all of the microfilm associations elsewhere in
the world asking for a brief description of the legal position in their
countries - their replies were included in a paper he presented at the same
seminar. He then headed a BSI working group which prepared a Draft for
Development - it was issued in 1984 under the title Preparation of
Microfilm and Other Microforms that may be required as evidence.
It is still available today as BS 6498: 2002
and remains one of the best available sources of guidance. It has since
been used as a model for subsequent standards relating to the legal aspects
of digital images. Unfortunately it is now priced at £116 for those who are
not members of BSI.
When preparing the following lists we have tried to
include all of the main standards and publications relating to the legal
status of microfilmed and scanned documents as we are aware of the
widespread interest on this subject. We have ignored many
standards applying to very limited applications or industries - such as
those only applying to aviation. We have also omitted many standards and
recommendations which specifically apply to public libraries and public
archives as they will be very familiar with them.
When seeking a standard by its reference number, please
note that we have now listed BS and BS ISO standards
by number - ignoring any prefix. We hope that this will lead to faster
searches when only the number is known. Most standards have titles that are
self-descriptive but we have added a few notes where the content is not so
Available from BSI
BS ISO 446 : 2004 - Micrographics. ISO character and
ISO test chart No 1. Description and use.
Replaces BS 4189 : 1967. £116
BS 1153 : 1992. Recommendations for processing and
storage of silver-gelatine-type microfilm. £98
BS EN 2499 : 1990 - Specification for computer output
microfiche (com) A6 microfiche. £98
BS EN 2547 : 1989. Specification for filming of
documents. Microfilm 105mm. Generation of A6 microfiche. £98
BS ISO 3272 : Microfilming of technical drawings and
other drawing office documents. This now a five-part standard.
Part 1 : 2003 -
Operating procedures. Guidance for system
designers and operators. £116
Part 2 : 1994 - Quality criteria and control for 35mm silver-gelatin
Part 3 : 2001- Aperture cards for 35mm microfilm.
Dimensions and tolerances. £116
Part 4 : 2004 - Microfilming of drawings of special and
exceptional elongated sizes. £98
(Note - Part 5 has been withdrawn)
Part 6 : 2000 - Quality criteria and control of systems for enlargement from
35mm microfilm. Printout etc. £98
BS ISO 4087 : 1991 - Micrographics. Microfilming
of newspapers for archival purposes on 35mm film. Withdrawn
BS 5444 : 2008 - Physical attributes of documents for
microfilming or scanning. Code of practice. Replaces the identically
numbered standard which was limited to preparation of copy for microcopying.
Relates to filming in accordance with BS ISO 6199 or scanning at a minimum
of 200 dots per inch. £98
BS 5536 : 1988 - Recommendations for preparation of technical drawings and
diagrams for microfilming.
Applies to drawings to be filmed at reductions of 1:30. Covers sheet
sizes, borders, centring marks, drawing methods and materials. £98
BS ISO 6148 : 2001 - Photography. Micrographic films,
spools and cores. Dimensions. £164
BS ISO 6196-1 : 1993 - Micrographics. Vocabulary.
General terms. £164
BS ISO 6196-2 : 1993 - Micrographics. Vocabulary. Image
positions and methods of recording. £116
BS ISO 6196-3 : 1997 - Micrographics. Vocabulary. Film
BS ISO 6196-4 : 1998 - Micrographics. Vocabulary.
Materials and packaging. £164
BS ISO 6196-5 : 1987 - Micrographics. Vocabulary.
Quality of images. Legibility inspection. £98
BS ISO 6196-6 : 1992 - Micrographics. Vocabulary.
BS ISO 6196-7 : 1992 - Micrographics. Vocabulary.
Computer micrographics. £164
BS ISO 6196-8 : 1998 - Micrographics. Vocabulary. Use.
BS ISO 6196-10 : 1999 - Micrographics. Vocabulary.
BS ISO 6198 : 1993 - Micrographics. Readers for
transparent microforms. Performance characteristics, £116
BS ISO 6199 : 1991 - Micrographics. Microfilming of
documents on 16mm and 35mm silver-gelatin type microfilm. operating
procedures. This standard has been withdrawn.
BS ISO 6200 : 1991 - Micrographics. First generation
silver-gelatin microforms of source documents. Density specifications and
methods of measurement. This standard has been
BS 6313 : 2003 - Micrographics. 35mm microfilming of
serials. Specification. Covers preparation, microfilming and
storage of serials other than newspapers on black and white silver halide
roll film. £116
ISO 6342 : 2003 Ed 2 - Micrographics. Aperture cards.
Method of measuring thickness of buildup area. £30
BS 6359 : 1983 - Specification for dimensions and
position of microfiche heading coating (colour stripe). £98
BS 6498 : 2002 - Guide to
preparation of microfilm and other microforms that may be required as
evidence. Covers the setting up of a suitable microfilming procedure,
the forms and records required and a summary of the legal position in the
BS ISO : 6660 1985 - Guide to setting up and
maintaining micrographics and digital imaging units. Micrographic Units. This
standard has been withdrawn.
BS ISO 7565 : 1993 - Micrographics. Readers for
transparent microforms. Measurement of characteristics. £116
ISO 7761 : 2004 Ed 1 - Micrographics. Single-core
cartridge for 16mm processed microfilm. Dimensions and operational
BS ISO 8126 : 2000 - Micrographics. Duplicating
film, silver, diazo and vesicular. Visual density. Specifications and
BS ISO 8127-1 : 1989 - Micrographics. A6 size microfilm
jackets. 5 channel jacket for 16mm microfilm. Stipulates dimensions and
tolerances. £98 (Note: Part 2 of this standard has been withdrawn.)
BS ISO 8514-1 : 1992- Micrographics. Alphanumeric
computer output microforms. Quality control. Characteristics of the test
slide and test data. This standard has been
BS ISO 8514-2 : 1992 - Micrographics. Alphanumeric
computer output microforms. Quality control. Method.
This standard has been withdrawn.
BS ISO 9001: 2015 - Quality Management Systems.
Requirements. Assists when an organisation needs to prove compliance
with all regulatory requirements and aims to improve customer confidence in
strict control of operating procedures. Covers key processes in the
business, methods of monitoring and verifying effectiveness and adequate
record keeping. Adopted by several UK service bureaux. £114
ISO 9878 : 1990 - Micrographics. Vocabulary. Graphical
symbols for use in microfilming. £30
BS ISO 9923 : 1994 - Micrographics. Transparent A6
microfiche. image arrangements. £164
BS ISO 10197 : 1993 - Micrographics. Reader-printers
for transparent microforms. Characteristics. £98
BS ISO 10198 : 1994 - Micrographics. Rotary camera for
16mm microfilm. Mechanical and optical characteristics. £98
BS ISO 10550 : 1994 - Micrographics. Planetary camera
systems. Test target for checking performance £98
ISO/TR 10593 (R10) : 1997 - Micrographics. Use of
microfilm jackets. £45
BS ISO 10594 : 2006 - Micrographics. Rotary camera
systems. Resolution test chart for checking performance. Flexible test
chart suitable for rotary cameras. This standard has
BS ISO 11142 : 2005 - (RO9) Ed 1 - Micrographics.
Colour microfilm. Application of the exposure technique to prepare the line
originals and continuous tone originals. £68
BS ISO 11506: 2009 - Document management applications.
Archiving of electronic data. Computer output microfilm (COM) / Computer
output laser disc (COLD). £190
BS ISO 11698-1 : 2000 - Micrographics. Methods of
measuring image quality produced by aperture card scanners. Characteristics
of the test images. £116
BS ISO 11698-2 : 2000 - Micrographics. Methods of
measuring image quality produced by aperture card scanners. Quality criteria
and control. £116
BS ISO 11928-1 : 2000 - Micrographics. Quality control
of graphic COM recorders. Characteristics of the test frames. £98
BS ISO 11928-2 : 2000 - Micrographics. Quality control
of graphic COM recorders. Quality criteria and control. £116
BS ISO 11962 : 2002 - Micrographics. Image mark (blip)
used with 16mm and 35mm roll microfilm. £98. Blip sizes for automated
BS ISO/TR 12031 : 2000 - Micrographics. Inspection of
silver-gelatin microforms for evidence of deterioration. £164
PD ISO/TR 12036 : 2000 - Micrographics. Expungement,
deletion, correction or amendment of records on microforms. £116
BS ISO 12656 : 2001 - Micrographics. Use of bar codes on aperture cards.
BS ISO 14648-1 : 2001 - Micrographics. Quality control
of COM recorders that generate images using a single internal display
system. Characteristics of the software test target. £98
BS ISO 14648-2 : 2001 - Micrographics. Quality control
of COM recorders that generate images using a single internal display
system. Method of use. How to employ the test software specified in part
1 above. £86
BS ISO 15489-1 : 2016 - Information and documentation.
Records management. Concepts and principles. Applies to management of
records in all formats or media, created or received by any public or
private organisation or any individual with a duty to create and maintain
records. Offers help for those seeking to comply with ISO 9001.
BS ISO 24537 : 2007 - Micrographics. Dimensions for
reels used for 16mm and 35mm microfilm. £98
BS ISO 30301 : 2011 - Information and Documentation.
Management system for records. Requirements. Specifies requirements for
a Management System for Records enabling demonstration of
ability to create and control records in accordance with a records
Available from The
The National Archives offer a wide range of downloadable
PDF files covering all aspects document archiving, preservation and records
management. Training courses are also available.